Know-how Tendencies for 2023 – O’Reilly


This yr’s report on the O’Reilly studying platform takes an in depth take a look at how our clients used the platform. Our objective is to search out out what they’re excited about now and the way that modified from 2021—and to make some predictions about what 2023 will carry.

Loads has occurred up to now yr. In 2021, we noticed that GPT-3 might write tales and even assist individuals write software program; in 2022, ChatGPT confirmed that you could have conversations with an AI. Now builders are utilizing AI to write down software program. Late in 2021, Mark Zuckerberg began speaking about “the metaverse,” and pretty quickly, everybody was speaking about it. However the dialog cooled nearly as rapidly because it began. Again then, cryptocurrency costs have been approaching a excessive, and NFTs have been “a factor”…then they crashed.

Be taught sooner. Dig deeper. See farther.

What’s actual, and what isn’t? Our information reveals us what O’Reilly’s 2.8 million customers are literally engaged on and what they’re studying day-to-day. That’s a greater measure of know-how traits than something that occurs among the many Twitterati. The solutions normally aren’t present in huge spectacular modifications; they’re present in smaller shifts that mirror how persons are turning the large concepts into real-world merchandise. The alerts are sometimes complicated: for instance, curiosity in content material concerning the “huge three” cloud suppliers is barely down, whereas curiosity in content material about cloud migration is considerably up. What does that imply? Firms are nonetheless “transferring into the cloud”—that pattern hasn’t modified—however as some transfer ahead, others are pulling again (“repatriation”) or suspending tasks. It’s gratifying once we see an vital subject come alive: zero belief, which displays an vital rethinking of how safety works, confirmed great progress. However different know-how subjects (together with some favorites) are hitting plateaus and even declining.

Whereas we don’t focus on the financial system as such, it’s at all times within the background. Whether or not or not we’re truly in a recession, many in our trade understand us to be so, and that notion will be self-fulfilling. Firms that went on a hiring spree over the previous few years at the moment are realizing that they made a mistake—and that features each giants that do layoffs within the tens of 1000’s and startups that thought they’d entry to an countless stream of VC money. In flip, that actuality influences the actions people take to safeguard their jobs or enhance their worth ought to they should discover a new one.


This report relies on our inner “items seen” metric, which is a single metric throughout all of the media varieties included in our platform: ebooks, after all, but additionally movies and reside coaching programs. We use items seen as a result of it measures what individuals truly do on our platform. However it’s vital to acknowledge the metric’s shortcomings; as George Field (nearly)1 mentioned, “All metrics are fallacious, however some are helpful.” Models seen tends to low cost the utilization of latest subjects: if a subject is new, there isn’t a lot content material, and customers can’t view content material that doesn’t exist. As a counter to our concentrate on items seen, we’ll take a quick take a look at searches, which aren’t constrained by the supply of content material. For the needs of this report, items seen is at all times normalized to 1, the place 1 is assigned to the best variety of items in any group of subjects.

It’s additionally vital to do not forget that these “items” are “seen” by our customers. Whether or not they entry the platform by means of particular person or company accounts, O’Reilly members are sometimes utilizing the platform for work. Regardless of speak of “web time,” our trade doesn’t change radically from each day, month to month, and even yr to yr. We don’t need to low cost or undervalue those that are selecting up new concepts and abilities—that’s a particularly vital use of the platform. But when an organization’s IT division have been engaged on its ecommerce web site in 2021, they have been nonetheless engaged on that web site in 2022, they gained’t cease engaged on it in 2023, they usually’ll be engaged on it in 2024. They could be including AI-driven options or transferring it to the cloud and orchestrating it with Kubernetes, however they’re not prone to drop React (and even PHP) to maneuver to the newest cool framework.

Nevertheless, when the newest cool factor demonstrates just a few years of strong progress, it may possibly simply turn out to be one of many well-established applied sciences. That’s taking place now with Rust. Rust isn’t going to take over from Java and Python tomorrow, not to mention in 2024 or 2025, however that’s a motion that’s actual. Lastly, it’s clever to be skeptical about “noise.” Adjustments of 1 or two proportion factors usually imply little. However when a mature know-how that’s main its class stops rising, it’s truthful to wonder if it’s hit a plateau and is en path to turning into a legacy know-how.

The Greatest Image

We are able to get a high-level view of platform utilization by utilization for our top-level subjects. Content material about software program improvement was essentially the most broadly used (31% of all utilization in 2022), which incorporates software program structure and programming languages. Software program improvement is adopted by IT operations (18%), which incorporates cloud, and by information (17%), which incorporates machine studying and synthetic intelligence. Enterprise (13%), safety (8%), and internet and cell (6%) come subsequent. That’s a reasonably good image of our core viewers’s pursuits: solidly technical, targeted on software program somewhat than {hardware}, however with a major stake in enterprise subjects.

Complete platform utilization grew by 14.1% yr over yr, greater than doubling the 6.2% acquire we noticed from 2020 to 2021. The subjects that noticed the best progress have been enterprise (30%), design (23%), information (20%), safety (20%), and {hardware} (19%)—all within the neighborhood of 20% progress. Software program improvement grew by 12%, which sounds disappointing, though in any examine like this, the most important classes have a tendency to indicate the least change. Utilization of assets about IT operations solely elevated by 6.9%. That’s a shock, significantly because the operations world remains to be coming to phrases with cloud computing.

O’Reilly studying platform utilization by subject yr over yr

Whereas this report focuses on content material utilization, a fast take a look at search information offers a really feel for the preferred subjects, along with the quickest rising (and quickest declining) classes. Python, Kubernetes, and Java have been the preferred search phrases. Searches for Python confirmed a 29% year-over-year acquire, whereas searches for Java and Kubernetes are nearly unchanged: Java gained 3% and Kubernetes declined 4%. However it’s additionally vital to notice what searches don’t present: once we take a look at programming languages, we’ll see that content material about Java is extra closely used than content material about Python (though Python is rising sooner).

Equally, the precise use of content material about Kubernetes confirmed a slight year-over-year acquire (4.4%), regardless of the decline within the variety of searches. And regardless of being the second-most-popular search time period, items seen for Kubernetes have been solely 41% of these for Java and 47% of these for Python. This distinction between search information and utilization information could imply that builders “reside” of their programming languages, not of their container instruments. They should find out about Kubernetes and ceaselessly have to ask particular questions—and people wants generate plenty of searches. However they’re working with Java or Python continually, and that generates extra items seen.

The Go programming language is one other fascinating case. “Go” and “Golang” are distinct search strings, however they’re clearly the identical subject. Once you add searches for Go and Golang, the Go language strikes from fifteenth and sixteenth place as much as fifth, simply behind machine studying. Nevertheless, change in use of the search time period was comparatively small: a 1% decline for Go, a 8% enhance for Golang. Taking a look at Go as a subject class, we see one thing totally different: utilization of content material about Go is considerably behind the leaders, Java and Python, however nonetheless the third highest on our record, and with a 20% acquire from 2021 to 2022.

Taking a look at searches is worth it, but it surely’s vital to appreciate that search information and utilization information usually inform totally different tales.

High searches on the O’Reilly studying platform yr over yr

Searches can even give a fast image of which subjects are rising. The highest three year-over-year positive aspects have been for the CompTIA Linux+ certification, the CompTIA A+ certification, and transformers (the AI mannequin that’s led to great progress in pure language processing). Nevertheless, none of those are what we’d name “prime tier” search phrases: they’d ranks starting from 186 to 405. (That mentioned, understand that the variety of distinctive search phrases we see is properly over 1,000,000. It’s loads simpler for a search time period with just a few thousand queries to develop than it’s for a search time period with 100,000 queries.)

The sharpest declines in search frequency have been for cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Java 11. There aren’t any actual surprises right here. This has been a troublesome yr for cryptocurrency, with a number of scandals and crashes. As of late 2021, Java 11 was not the present long-term help (LTS) launch of Java; that’s moved on to Java 17.

What Our Customers Are Doing (in Element)

That’s a high-level image. However the place are our customers truly spending their time? To grasp that, we’ll have to take a extra detailed take a look at our subject hierarchy—not simply on the subjects on the prime stage however at these within the internal (and innermost) layers.

Software program Growth

The largest change we’ve seen is the expansion in curiosity in coding practices; 35% year-over-year progress can’t be ignored, and signifies that software program builders are extremely motivated to enhance their apply of programming. Coding practices is a broad subject that encompasses loads—software program upkeep, test-driven improvement, sustaining legacy software program, and pair programming are all subcategories. Two smaller classes which are carefully associated to coding practices additionally confirmed substantial will increase: utilization of content material about Git (a distributed model management system and supply code repository) was up 21%, and QA and testing was up 78%. Practices like the usage of code repositories and steady testing are nonetheless spreading to each new builders and older IT departments. These practices are not often taught in laptop science packages, and plenty of corporations are simply starting to place them to make use of. Builders, each new and skilled, are studying them on the job.

Going by items seen, design patterns is the second-largest class, with a year-over-year enhance of 13%. Object-oriented programming confirmed a wholesome 24% enhance. The 2 are carefully associated, after all; whereas the idea of design patterns is relevant to any programming paradigm, object-oriented programming (significantly Java, C#, and C++) is the place they’ve taken maintain.

It’s value taking a better take a look at design patterns. Design patterns are options to frequent issues—they assist programmers work with out “reinventing wheels.” Above all, design patterns are a approach of sharing knowledge. They’ve been abused up to now by programmers who thought software program was “good” if it used “design patterns,” and jammed as many into their code as doable, whether or not or not it was applicable. Fortunately, we’ve gotten past that now.

What about practical programming? The “object versus practical” debates of some years in the past are over for essentially the most half. The key concepts behind practical programming will be applied in any language, and practical programming options have been added to Java, C#, C++, and most different main programming languages. We’re now in an age of “multiparadigm” programming. It feels unusual to conclude that object-oriented programming has established itself, as a result of in lots of ways in which was by no means doubtful; it has lengthy been the paradigm of alternative for constructing massive software program programs. As our programs are rising ever bigger, object-oriented programming’s significance appears safe.

Management and administration additionally confirmed very sturdy progress (38%). Software program builders know that product improvement isn’t nearly code; it depends closely on communication, collaboration, and important considering. Additionally they notice that administration or staff management could be the following step of their profession.

Lastly, we’d be remiss to not point out quantum computing. It’s the smallest subject class on this group however confirmed a 24% year-over-year acquire. The primary quantum computer systems at the moment are obtainable by means of cloud suppliers like IBM and Amazon Internet Companies (AWS). Whereas these computer systems aren’t but highly effective sufficient to do any actual work, they make it doable to get a head begin on quantum programming. No person is aware of when quantum computer systems can be substantial sufficient to resolve real-world issues: perhaps two years, perhaps 20. However programmers are clearly excited about getting began.

Yr-over-year progress for software program improvement subjects

Software program structure

Software program structure is a really broad class that encompasses every little thing from design patterns (which we additionally noticed below software program improvement) to comparatively fashionable subjects like serverless and event-driven structure. The most important subject on this group was, unsurprisingly, software program structure itself: a class that features books on the basics of software program structure, programs considering, communication abilities, and far more—nearly something to do with the design, implementation, and administration of software program. Not solely was this a big class, but it surely additionally grew considerably: 26% from 2021 to 2022. Software program architect has clearly turn out to be an vital position, the following step for programming employees who need to stage up their abilities.

For a number of years, microservices has been one of the well-liked subjects in software program structure, and this yr is not any exception. It was the second-largest subject and confirmed 3.6% progress over 2021. Area-driven design (DDD) was the third-most-commonly-used subject, though smaller; it additionally confirmed progress (19%). Though DDD has been round for a very long time, it got here into prominence with the rise of microservices as a approach to consider partitioning an utility into impartial providers.

Is the comparatively low progress of microservices an indication of change? Have microservices reached a peak? We don’t suppose so, but it surely’s vital to grasp the advanced relationship between microservices and monolithic architectures. Monoliths inevitably turn out to be extra advanced over time, as bug fixes, new enterprise necessities, the necessity to scale, and different points should be addressed. Decomposing a fancy monolith into a fancy set of microservices is a difficult activity and positively one that may’t be underestimated: builders are buying and selling one sort of complexity for one more within the hope of attaining elevated flexibility and scalability long-term. Microservices are not a “cool new concept,” and builders have acknowledged that they’re not the answer to each drawback. Nevertheless, they are a superb match for cloud deployments, they usually depart an organization well-positioned to supply its providers through APIs and turn out to be an “as a service” firm. Microservices are unlikely to say no, although they might have reached a plateau. They’ve turn out to be a part of the IT panorama. However corporations have to digest the complexity trade-off.

Internet APIs, which corporations use to supply providers to distant consumer software program through the net’s HTTP protocol, confirmed a really wholesome enhance (76%). This enhance reveals that we’re transferring much more strongly to an “API financial system,” the place essentially the most profitable corporations are constructed not round merchandise however round providers accessed by means of internet APIs. That, in spite of everything, is the idea for all “software program as a service” corporations; it’s the idea on which all of the cloud suppliers are constructed; it’s what ties Amazon’s enterprise empire collectively. RESTful APIs noticed a smaller enhance (6%); the momentum has clearly moved from the simplicity of REST to extra advanced APIs that use JSON, GraphQL, and different applied sciences to maneuver data.

The 29% enhance within the utilization of content material about distributed programs is vital. A number of components drive the rise in distributed programs: the transfer to microservices, the necessity to serve astronomical numbers of on-line purchasers, the tip of Moore’s legislation, and extra. The time when a profitable utility might run on a single mainframe—and even on a small cluster of servers in a rack—is lengthy gone. Fashionable functions run throughout lots of or 1000’s of computer systems, digital machines, and cloud situations, all related by high-speed networks and information buses. That features software program working on single laptops outfitted with multicore CPUs and GPUs. Distributed programs require designing software program that may run successfully in these environments: software program that’s dependable, that stays up even when some servers or networks go down, and the place there are as few efficiency bottlenecks as doable. Whereas this class remains to be comparatively small, its progress reveals that software program builders have realized that every one programs are distributed programs; there is no such thing as a such factor as an utility that runs on a single laptop.

Yr-over-year progress for software program structure and design subjects

What about serverless? Serverless appears to be like like a superb know-how for implementing microservices, but it surely’s been giving us blended alerts for a number of years now. Some years it’s up barely; some years it’s down barely. This yr, it’s down 14%, and whereas that’s not a collapse, we have now to see that drop as important. Like microservices, serverless is not a “cool new factor” in software program structure, however the lower in utilization raises questions: Are software program builders nervous concerning the diploma of management serverless places within the arms of cloud suppliers, spinning up and shutting down situations as wanted? That may very well be a giant concern. Cloud clients need to get their accounts payable down, cloud suppliers need to get their accounts receivable up, and if the supplier tweaks just a few parameters that the client by no means sees, that steadiness might change loads. Or has serverless simply plunged into the “trough of disillusionment” from which it would finally emerge into the “airplane of productiveness”? Or perhaps it’s simply an concept whose time got here and went? Regardless of the cause, serverless has by no means established itself convincingly. Subsequent yr could give us a greater concept…or simply extra ambiguity.

Programming languages

The tales we are able to inform about programming languages are little modified from final yr. Java is the chief (with 1.7% year-over-year progress), adopted by Python (3.4% progress). However as we glance down the chart, we see some fascinating challengers to the established order. Go’s utilization is just 20% of Java’s, but it surely’s seen 20% progress. That’s substantial. C++ is hardly a brand new language—and we sometimes anticipate older languages to be extra steady—but it surely had 19% year-over-year progress. And Rust, with utilization that’s solely 9% of Java, had 22% progress from 2021 to 2022. These numbers don’t foreshadow a revolution—as we mentioned on the outset, only a few corporations are going to take infrastructure written in Java and rewrite it in Go or Rust simply to allow them to be pattern compliant. As everyone knows, plenty of infrastructure is written in COBOL, and that isn’t going wherever. However each Rust and Go have established themselves in key areas of infrastructure: Docker and Kubernetes are each written in Go, and Rust is establishing itself within the safety neighborhood (and probably additionally the information and AI communities). Go and Rust are already pushing older languages like C++ and Java to evolve. With just a few extra years of 20% progress, Go and Rust can be difficult Java and Python straight, in the event that they aren’t difficult them already for greenfield tasks.

JavaScript is an anomaly on our charts: complete utilization is nineteen% of Java’s, with a 4.6% year-over-year decline. JavaScript reveals up at, or close to, the highest on most programming language surveys, comparable to RedMonk’s rankings (normally in a digital tie with Java and Python). Nevertheless, the TIOBE Index reveals more room between Python (first place), Java (fourth), and JavaScript (seventh)—extra in keeping with our observations of platform utilization. We attribute JavaScript’s decline partly to the elevated affect of TypeScript, a statically typed variant of JavaScript that compiles to JavaScript (12% year-over-year enhance). One factor we’ve observed over the previous few years: whereas programmers had a protracted dalliance with duck typing and dynamic languages, as functions (and groups) grew bigger, builders realized the worth of sturdy, statically typed languages (TypeScript definitely, but additionally Go and Rust, although these are much less vital for internet improvement). This shift could also be cyclical; a decade from now, we may even see a revival of curiosity in dynamic languages. One other issue is the usage of frameworks like React, Angular, and Node.js, that are undoubtedly JavaScript however have their very own subjects in our hierarchy. Nevertheless, once you add all 4 collectively, you continue to see a 2% decline for JavaScript, with out accounting for the shift from JavaScript to TypeScript. Regardless of the cause, proper now, the pendulum appears to be swinging away from JavaScript. (For extra on frameworks, see the dialogue of internet improvement.)

The opposite two languages that noticed a drop in utilization are C# (6.3%) and Scala (16%). Is that this simply noise, or is it a extra substantial decline? The change appears too massive to be a random fluctuation. Scala has at all times been a language for backend programming, as has C# (although to a lesser extent). Whereas neither language is especially previous, it appears their shine has worn off. They’re each competing poorly with Go and Rust for brand spanking new customers. Scala can also be competing poorly with the newer variations of Java, which now have lots of the practical options that originally drove curiosity in Scala.

Yr-over-year progress for programming languages


Laptop safety has been within the information ceaselessly over the previous few years. That unwelcome publicity has each revealed cracks within the safety posture of many corporations and obscured some vital modifications within the subject. The cracks are all too apparent: most organizations do a foul job of the fundamentals. In keeping with one report, 91% of all assaults begin with a phishing e-mail that methods a person into giving up their login credentials. Phishes have gotten extra frequent and more durable to detect. Primary safety hygiene is as vital as ever, but it surely’s getting tougher. And cloud computing generates its personal issues. Firms can not shield all of their IT programs behind a firewall; lots of the servers are working in a knowledge heart someplace, and IT employees has no concept the place they’re or even when they exist as bodily entities.

Given this shift, it’s not shocking that zero belief, an vital new paradigm for designing safety into distributed programs, grew 146% between 2021 and 2022. Zero belief abandons the belief that programs will be protected on some sort of safe community; all makes an attempt to entry any system, whether or not by an individual or software program, should current correct credentials. Hardening programs, whereas it acquired the least utilization, grew 91% yr over yr. Different subjects with important progress have been safe coding (40%), superior persistent threats (55%), and utility safety (46%). All of those subjects are about constructing functions that may stand up to assaults, no matter the place they run.

Governance (year-over-year enhance of 72%) is a really broad subject that features just about each facet of compliance and danger administration. Points like safety hygiene more and more fall below “governance,” as corporations attempt to adjust to the necessities of insurers and regulators, along with making their operations safer. As a result of nearly all assaults begin with a phish or another sort of social engineering, simply telling workers to not give their passwords away gained’t assist. Firms are more and more utilizing coaching packages, password managers, multifactor authentication, and different approaches to sustaining fundamental hygiene.

Yr-over-year progress for safety subjects

Community safety, which was essentially the most closely used safety subject in 2022, grew by a wholesome 32%. What drove this enhance? Not the usage of content material about firewalls, which solely grew 7%. Whereas firewalls are nonetheless helpful for safeguarding the IT infrastructure in a bodily workplace, they’re of restricted assist when a considerable a part of any group’s infrastructure is within the cloud. What occurs when an worker brings their laptop computer into the workplace from residence or takes it to a espresso store the place it’s extra susceptible to assault? How do you safe WiFi networks for individuals working from residence in addition to within the workplace? The broader drawback of community safety has solely turn out to be tougher, and these issues can’t be solved by company firewalls.

Use of content material about penetration testing and moral hacking truly decreased by 14%, though it was the second-most-heavily-used safety subject in our taxonomy (and essentially the most closely utilized in 2021).

Safety certifications

Safety professionals love their certifications. Our platform information reveals that an important certifications have been CISSP (Licensed Data Programs Safety Skilled) and CompTIA Safety+. CISSP has lengthy been the preferred safety certification. It’s a really complete certification oriented towards senior safety specialists: candidates will need to have a minimum of 5 years’ expertise within the subject to take the examination. Utilization of CISSP-related content material dropped 0.23% yr over yr—in different phrases, it was primarily flat. A change this small is nearly definitely noise, however the lack of change could point out that CISSP has saturated its market.

In comparison with CISSP, the CompTIA Safety+ certification is geared toward entry- or mid-level safety practitioners; it’s a superb complement to the opposite CompTIA certifications, comparable to Community+. Proper now, the demand for safety exceeds the availability, and that’s drawing new individuals into the sector. This matches with the rise in the usage of content material to arrange for the CompTIA Safety+ examination, which grew 16% up to now yr. The CompTIA CSA+ examination (not too long ago renamed the CYSA+) is a extra superior certification aimed particularly at safety analysts; it confirmed 37% progress.

Yr-over-year progress for safety certifications

Use of content material associated to the Licensed Moral Hacker certification dropped 5.9%. The explanations for this decline aren’t clear, on condition that demand for penetration testing (one focus of moral hacking) is excessive. Nevertheless, there are a lot of certifications particularly for penetration testers. It’s additionally value noting that penetration testing is ceaselessly a service offered by outdoors consultants. Most corporations don’t have the finances to rent full-time penetration testers, and which will make the CEH certification much less enticing to individuals planning their careers.

CBK isn’t an examination; it’s the framework of fabric round which the Worldwide Data System Safety Certification Consortium, extra generally generally known as (ISC)², builds its exams. With a 31% year-over-year enhance for CBK content material, it’s one other clear signal that curiosity in safety as a career is rising. And regardless that (ISC)²’s marquee certification, CISSP, has probably reached saturation, different (ISC)² certifications present clear progress: CCSP (Licensed Cloud Safety Skilled) grew 52%, and SSCP (Programs Safety Licensed Practitioner) grew 67%. Though these certifications aren’t as well-liked, their progress is a vital pattern.


Knowledge is one other very broad class, encompassing every little thing from conventional enterprise analytics to synthetic intelligence. Knowledge engineering was the dominant subject by far, rising 35% yr over yr. Knowledge engineering offers with the issue of storing information at scale and delivering that information to functions. It consists of transferring information to the cloud, constructing pipelines for buying information and getting information to utility software program (usually in close to actual time), resolving the problems which are attributable to information siloed in several organizations, and extra.

Apache Spark, a platform for large-scale information processing, was essentially the most broadly used device, regardless that the usage of content material about Spark declined barely up to now yr (2.7%). Hadoop, which might have led this class a decade in the past, remains to be current, although utilization of content material about Hadoop dropped 8.3%; Hadoop has turn out to be a legacy information platform.

Microsoft Energy BI has established itself because the main enterprise analytics platform; content material about Energy BI was essentially the most closely used, and achieved 31% year-over-year progress. NoSQL databases was second, with 7.6% progress—however understand that NoSQL was a motion that spawned a lot of databases, with many various properties and designs. Our information reveals that NoSQL definitely isn’t lifeless, regardless of some claims on the contrary; it has clearly established itself. Nevertheless, the 4 prime relational databases, if added collectively right into a single “relational database” subject, can be essentially the most closely used subject by a big margin. Oracle grew 18.2% yr over yr; Microsoft SQL Server grew 9.4%; MySQL grew 4.7%; and PostgreSQL grew 19%.

Use of content material about R, the broadly used statistics platform, grew 15% from 2021. Equally, utilization of content material about Pandas, essentially the most broadly used Python library for working with R-like information frames, grew 20%. It’s fascinating that Pandas and R had roughly the identical utilization. Python and R have been competing (in a pleasant approach) for the information science marketplace for practically 20 years. Based mostly on our utilization information, proper now it appears to be like like a tie. R has barely extra market share, however Pandas has higher progress. Each are staples in tutorial analysis: R is extra of a “statistician’s workbench” with a complete set of statistical instruments, whereas Python and Pandas are constructed for programmers. The distinction has extra to do with customers’ tastes than substance although: R is a completely succesful programming language, and Python has glorious statistical and array-processing libraries.

Utilization for content material about information lakes and about information warehouses was additionally nearly equal, however information lakes utilization had a lot larger year-over-year progress (50% versus 3.9%). Knowledge lakes are a method for storing a corporation’s information in an unstructured repository; they got here into prominence just a few years in the past as a substitute for information warehouses. It could be helpful to match information lakes with information lakehouses and information meshes; these phrases aren’t in our taxonomy but.

Yr-over-year progress for information evaluation and database subjects

Synthetic intelligence

In the beginning of 2022, who would have thought that we might be asking an AI-driven chat service to clarify supply code (even when it sometimes makes up details)? Or that we’d have AI programs that allow nonartists to create works which are on a par with skilled designers (even when they’ll’t match Degas and Renoir)? But right here we’re, and we don’t have ChatGPT or generative AI in our taxonomy. The one factor that we are able to say is that 2023 will nearly definitely take AI even additional. How a lot additional no person is aware of.

For the previous two years, pure language processing (NLP) has been on the forefront of AI analysis, with the discharge of Open AI’s well-liked instruments GPT-3 and ChatGPT together with related tasks from Google, Meta, and others that haven’t been launched. NLP has many industrial functions, starting from automated chat servers to code era (e.g., GitHub Copilot) to writing instruments. It’s not shocking that NLP content material was essentially the most seen and noticed important year-over-year progress (42%). All of this progress relies on deep studying, which was the second-most-heavily-used subject, with 23% progress. Curiosity in reinforcement studying appears to be off (14% decline), although which will flip round as researchers attempt to develop AI programs which are extra correct and that may’t be tricked into hate speech. Reinforcement studying with human suggestions (RLHF) is one new method which may result in better-behaved language fashions.

There was additionally comparatively little curiosity in content material about chatbots (a 5.8% year-over-year decline). This reversal appears counterintuitive, but it surely is sensible on reflection. The discharge of GPT-3 was a watershed occasion, an “every little thing you’ve achieved to this point is out-of-date” second. We’re enthusiastic about what’s going to occur in 2023, although the outcomes will rely loads on how ChatGPT and its family members are commercialized, as ChatGPT turns into a fee-based service, and each Microsoft and Google take steps in direction of chat-based search.

Yr-over-year progress for synthetic intelligence subjects

Our studying platform offers some perception into the instruments builders and researchers are utilizing to work with AI. Based mostly on items seen, scikit-learn was the preferred library. It’s a comparatively previous device, but it surely’s nonetheless actively maintained and clearly appreciated by the neighborhood: utilization elevated 4.7% over the yr. Whereas utilization of content material about PyTorch and TensorFlow is roughly equal (PyTorch is barely forward), it’s clear that PyTorch now has momentum. PyTorch elevated 20%, whereas TensorFlow decreased 4.8%. Keras, a frontend library that makes use of TensorFlow, dropped 40%.

It’s disappointing to see so little utilization of content material on MLOps this yr, together with a slight drop (4.0%) from 2021 to 2022. One of many largest issues dealing with machine studying and synthetic intelligence is deploying functions into manufacturing after which sustaining them. ML and AI functions should be built-in into the deployment processes used for different IT functions. That is the enterprise of MLOps, which presents a set of issues which are solely starting to be solved, together with versioning for giant units of coaching information and automatic testing to find out when a mannequin has turn out to be stale and desires retraining. Maybe it’s nonetheless too early, however these issues should be addressed if ML and AI are to reach the enterprise.

No-code and low-code instruments for AI don’t seem in our taxonomy, sadly. Our report AI Adoption within the Enterprise 2022 argues that AutoML in its varied incarnations is step by step gaining traction. It is a pattern value watching. Whereas there’s little or no coaching obtainable on Google AutoML, Amazon AutoML, IBM AutoAI, Amazon SageMaker, and different low-code instruments, they’ll nearly definitely be an vital power multiplier for knowledgeable AI builders.

Infrastructure and Operations

Containers, Linux, and Kubernetes are the highest subjects inside infrastructure and operations. Containers sits on the prime of the record (with 2.5% year-over-year progress), with Docker, the preferred container, in fifth place (with a 4.4% decline). Linux, the second most used subject, grew 4.4% yr over yr. There’s no shock right here; as we’ve been saying for a while, Linux is “desk stakes” for operations. Kubernetes is third, with 4.4% progress.

The containers subject is extraordinarily broad: it consists of plenty of content material that’s primarily about Docker but additionally content material about containers generally, options to Docker (most notably Podman), container deployment, and plenty of different subtopics. It’s clear that containers have modified the way in which we deploy software program, significantly within the cloud. It’s additionally clear that containers are right here to remain. Docker’s small drop is value noting however isn’t a harbinger of change. Kubernetes deprecated direct Docker help on the finish of 2020 in favor of the Container Runtime Interface (CRI). That change eradicated a direct tie between Kubernetes and Docker however doesn’t imply that containers constructed by Docker gained’t run on Kubernetes, since Docker helps the CRI normal. A extra convincing cause for the drop in utilization is that Docker is not new and builders and different IT employees are comfy with it. Docker itself could also be a smaller piece of the operations ecosystem, and it could have plateaued, but it surely’s nonetheless very a lot there.

Content material about Kubernetes was the third most generally seen on this group, and utilization grew 4.4% yr over yr. That comparatively sluggish progress could imply that Kubernetes is near a plateau. We more and more see complaints that Kubernetes is overly advanced, and we anticipate that, ultimately, somebody will construct a container orchestration platform that’s easier, or that builders will transfer towards “managed” options the place a 3rd social gathering (most likely a cloud supplier) manages Kubernetes for them. One vital a part of the Kubernetes ecosystem, the service mesh, is declining; content material about service mesh confirmed a 28% decline, whereas content material about Istio (the service mesh implementation most carefully tied to Kubernetes) declined 42%. Once more, service meshes (and particularly Istio) are broadly decried as too advanced. It’s indicative (and maybe alarming) that IT departments are resorting to “roll your personal” for a fancy piece of infrastructure that manages communications between providers and microservices (together with providers for safety). Options are rising. HashiCorp’s Consul and the open supply Linkerd mission are promising service meshes. UC Berkeley’s RISELab, which developed each Ray and Spark, not too long ago introduced SkyPilot, a device with objectives just like Kubernetes however that’s specialised for information. Regardless of the final result, we don’t consider that Kubernetes is the final phrase in container orchestration.

Yr-over-year progress for infrastructure and operations subjects

If there’s any device that defines “infrastructure as code,” it’s Terraform, which noticed 74% year-over-year progress. Terraform’s objectives are comparatively easy: You write a easy description of the infrastructure you need and the way you need that infrastructure configured. Terraform gathers the assets and configures them for you. Terraform can be utilized with the entire main cloud suppliers, along with personal clouds (through OpenStack), and it’s confirmed to be an important device for organizations which are migrating to the cloud.

We took a separate take a look at the “steady” methodologies (also referred to as CI/CD): steady integration, steady supply, and steady deployment. Total, this group confirmed an 18% year-over-year enhance in items seen. This progress comes largely from an enormous (40%) enhance in the usage of content material about steady supply. Steady integration confirmed a 22% decline, whereas steady deployment had a 7.1% enhance.

What does this inform us? The time period steady integration was first utilized by Grady Booch in 1991 and popularized by the Excessive Programming motion within the late Nineties. It refers back to the apply of merging code modifications right into a single repository ceaselessly, testing at every iteration to make sure that the mission is at all times in a coherent state. Steady integration is tightly coupled to steady supply; you nearly at all times see CI/CD collectively. Steady supply is a apply that was developed on the second-generation internet corporations, together with Flickr, Fb, and Amazon, which radically modified IT apply by staging software program updates for deployment a number of instances every day. With steady supply, deployment pipelines are absolutely automated, requiring solely a closing approval to place a launch into manufacturing. Steady deployment is the most recent (and smallest) of the three, emphasizing fully automated deployment to manufacturing: updates go straight from the developer into manufacturing, with none intervention. These methodologies are carefully tied to one another. CI/CD/CD as a complete (and sure, no person ever makes use of CD twice) is up 18% for the yr. That’s a major acquire, and regardless that these subjects have been round for some time, it’s proof that progress remains to be doable.

Yr-over-year progress for steady methodologies

IT and operations certifications

The main IT certification is clearly CompTIA, which confirmed a 41% year-over-year enhance. The CompTIA household (Community+, A+, Linux+, and Safety+) dominates the certification market. (The CompTIA Community+ confirmed a really slight decline (0.32%), which might be simply random fluctuation.) The Linux+ certification skilled great year-over-year progress (47%). That progress is simple to grasp. Linux has lengthy been the dominant server working system. Within the cloud, Linux situations are far more broadly used than the options, although Home windows is obtainable on Azure (after all) together with macOS. Prior to now few years, Linux’s market penetration has gone even deeper. We’ve already seen the position that containers are taking part in, and containers nearly at all times run Linux as their working system. In 1995, Linux might need been a unusual alternative for individuals dedicated to free and open supply software program. In 2023, Linux is necessary for anybody in IT or software program improvement. It’s onerous to think about getting a job or advancing in a profession with out demonstrating competence.

Yr-over-year progress for IT certifications

It’s shocking to see the Cisco Licensed Community Affiliate (CCNA) certification drop 18% and the Cisco Licensed Community Skilled (CCNP) certification drop 12%, because the Cisco certifications have been among the many most significant and prestigious in IT for a few years. (The Cisco Licensed Web Skilled (CCIE) certification, whereas comparatively small in comparison with the others, did present 70% progress.) There are a number of causes for this shift. First, as corporations transfer workloads to the cloud or to colocation suppliers, sustaining a fleet of routers and switches turns into much less vital. Community certifications are much less precious than they was. However why then the rise in CCIE? Whereas CCNA is an entry-level certification and CCNP is center tier, CCIE is Cisco’s top-tier certification. The examination may be very detailed and rigorous and consists of hands-on work with community {hardware}. Therefore the comparatively small quantity of people that try it and examine for it. Nevertheless, at the same time as corporations offload a lot of their day-to-day community administration to the cloud, they nonetheless want individuals who perceive networks in depth. They nonetheless should take care of workplace networks, and with extending workplace networks to distant workers. Whereas they don’t want employees to wrangle racks of knowledge heart routers, they do want community consultants who perceive what their cloud and colocation suppliers are doing. The necessity for community employees could be shrinking, but it surely isn’t going away. In a shrinking market, attaining the best stage of certification could have essentially the most long-term worth.


We haven’t seen any important shifts among the many main cloud suppliers. Amazon Internet Companies (AWS) nonetheless leads, adopted by Microsoft Azure, then Google Cloud. Collectively, this group represents 97% of cloud platform content material utilization. The larger story is that we noticed decreases in year-over-year utilization for all three. The decreases are small and may not be important: AWS is down 3.8%, Azure 7.5%, and Google Cloud 2.1%. We don’t know what’s chargeable for this decline. We appeared trade by trade; some have been up, some have been down, however there have been no smoking weapons. AWS confirmed a pointy drop in computer systems and electronics (about 27%), which is a comparatively massive class, and a smaller drop in finance and banking (15%), balanced by substantial progress in larger schooling (35%). There was plenty of volatility amongst industries that aren’t huge cloud customers—for instance, AWS was up about 250% in agriculture—however utilization amongst industries that aren’t main cloud customers isn’t excessive sufficient to account for that change. (Agriculture accounts for properly below 1% of complete AWS content material utilization.) The underside line is, as they are saying within the nightly monetary information, “Declines outnumbered positive aspects”: 16 out of 28 enterprise classes confirmed a decline. Azure was related, with 20 industries exhibiting declines, though Azure noticed a slight enhance for finance and banking. The identical was true for Google Cloud, although it benefited from an inflow of particular person (B2C) customers (up 9%).

Over the previous yr, there’s been some dialogue of “cloud repatriation”: bringing functions which have moved to the cloud again in-house. Value is the best motivation for repatriation; corporations transferring to the cloud have usually underestimated the prices, partly as a result of they haven’t succeeded in utilizing the cloud successfully. Whereas repatriation is little doubt chargeable for among the decline, it’s at most a small a part of the story. Cloud suppliers make it troublesome to go away, which mockingly may drive extra content material utilization as IT employees attempt to determine find out how to get their information again. An even bigger concern could be corporations which are placing cloud plans on maintain as a result of they hear of repatriation or which are suspending massive IT tasks as a result of they concern a recession.

Of the smaller cloud suppliers, IBM confirmed an enormous year-over-year enhance (135%). Virtually the entire change got here from a major enhance in consulting {and professional} providers (200% progress yr over yr). Oracle confirmed a 36% lower, nearly fully on account of a drop in content material utilization from the software program trade (down 49%). Nevertheless, the truth that Oracle is exhibiting up in any respect demonstrates that it’s grown considerably over the previous few years. Oracle’s high-profile deal to host all of TikTok’s information on US residents might simply solidify the corporate’s place as a major cloud supplier. (Or it might backfire if TikTok is banned.)

We didn’t embody two smaller suppliers within the graph: Heroku (now owned by Salesforce) and Cloud Foundry (initially VMware, handed off to the corporate’s Pivotal subsidiary after which to the Cloud Foundry Basis; now, a number of suppliers run Cloud Foundry software program). Each noticed pretty sharp year-over-year declines: 10% for Heroku, 26% for Cloud Foundry. So far as items seen, Cloud Foundry is nearly on a par with IBM. However Heroku isn’t even on the charts; it seems to be a service whose time has handed. We additionally omitted Tencent and Alibaba Cloud; they’re not in our topic taxonomy, and comparatively little content material is accessible.

Yr-over-year progress for cloud suppliers

Cloud certifications adopted an identical sample. AWS certifications led, adopted by Azure, adopted by Google Cloud. We noticed the identical puzzling year-over-year decline right here: 13% for AWS certification, 10% for Azure, and 6% for Google Cloud. And once more, the drop was smallest for Google Cloud.

Whereas utilization of content material about particular cloud suppliers dropped from 2021 to 2022, utilization for content material about different cloud computing subjects grew. Cloud migration, a reasonably normal class for content material about constructing cloud functions, grew 45%. Cloud service fashions additionally grew 41%. These will increase could assist us to grasp why utilization of content material concerning the “huge three” clouds decreased. As cloud utilization strikes past early adopters and turns into mainstream, the dialog naturally focuses much less on particular person cloud suppliers and extra on high-level points. After just a few pilot tasks and proofs of idea, studying about AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud is much less vital than planning a full-scale migration. How do you deploy to the cloud? How do you construct providers within the cloud? How do you combine functions you might have moved to the cloud with legacy functions which are staying in-house? At this level, corporations know the fundamentals and should go the remainder of the way in which.

Yr-over-year progress for cloud certifications

With this in thoughts, it’s in no way shocking that our clients are very excited about hybrid clouds, for which content material utilization grew 28% yr over yr. Our customers notice that each firm will inevitably evolve towards a hybrid cloud. Both there’ll be a wildcat skunkworks mission on some cloud that hasn’t been “blessed” by IT, or there’ll be an acquisition of an organization that’s utilizing a unique supplier, or they’ll have to combine with a enterprise associate utilizing a unique supplier, or they don’t have the finances to maneuver their legacy functions and information, or… The explanations are countless, however the conclusion is similar: hybrid is inevitable, and in lots of corporations it’s already the truth.

The rise in use of content material about personal clouds (37%) is a part of the identical story. Many corporations have functions and information which have to stay in-house (whether or not that’s bodily on-premises or hosted at a knowledge heart providing colocation). It nonetheless is sensible for these functions to make use of APIs and deployment toolchains equal to these used within the cloud. “The cloud” isn’t the exception; it has turn out to be the rule.

Yr-over-year progress for cloud structure subjects

Skilled Expertise

Prior to now yr, O’Reilly customers have been very excited about upgrading their skilled and administration abilities. Each class on this comparatively small group is up, and most of them are up considerably. Mission administration noticed 47% year-over-year progress; skilled improvement grew 37%. Use of content material concerning the Mission Administration Skilled (PMP) certification grew 36%, and curiosity in product administration grew equally (39%). Curiosity in communication abilities elevated 26% and curiosity in management grew by 28%. The 2 remaining classes that we tracked, IT administration and important considering, weren’t as massive and grew by considerably smaller quantities (21% and 20%, respectively).

A number of components drive these will increase. For a very long time, software program improvement and IT operations have been seen as solo pursuits dominated by “neckbeards” and delinquent nerds, with some “rock stars” and “10x programmers” thrown in. This stereotype is fallacious and dangerous—not simply to people however to groups and firms. Prior to now few years, we’ve heard loads much less about 10x builders and extra concerning the significance of excellent communication, management, and mentoring. Our clients have realized that the important thing to productiveness is nice teamwork, not some legendary 10x developer. And there are definitely many workers who see positions in administration, as a “tech lead,” as a product supervisor, or as a software program architect, as the apparent subsequent step of their careers. All of those positions stress the so-called “smooth abilities.” Lastly, discuss a recession has been on the rise for the previous yr, and we proceed to see massive layoffs from huge corporations. Whereas software program builders and IT operations employees are nonetheless in excessive demand, and there’s no scarcity of jobs, many are definitely attempting to amass new abilities to enhance their job safety or to provide themselves higher choices within the occasion that they’re laid off.

Yr-over-year progress for skilled abilities subjects

Internet Growth

The React and Angular frameworks proceed to dominate internet improvement. The steadiness is constant to shift towards React (10% year-over-year progress) and away from Angular (a 17% decline). Many frontend builders really feel that React provides higher efficiency and is extra versatile and simpler to study. Many new frameworks (and frameworks constructed on frameworks) are in play (Vue, Subsequent.js, Svelte, and so forth), however none are near turning into opponents. Vue confirmed a major year-over-year decline (17%), and the others didn’t make it onto the chart.

PHP remains to be a contender, after all, with nearly no change (a decline of 1%). PHP advocates declare that 80% of the net is constructed on it: Fb is constructed on PHP, as an example, together with thousands and thousands of WordPress websites. Nonetheless, it’s onerous to have a look at PHP and say that it’s not a legacy know-how. Ruby on Rails grew 6.6%. Content material utilization for Ruby on Rails is just like PHP, however Rails utilization has been declining for some years. Is it poised for a comeback?

The usage of content material about JavaScript confirmed a slight decline (4.6%), however we don’t consider that is important. In our taxonomy, content material can solely be tagged with one subject, and every little thing that covers React or Angular is implicitly about JavaScript. As well as, it’s fascinating to see utilization of TypeScript growing (12%); TypeScript is a strongly typed variant of JavaScript that compiles (the appropriate phrase is definitely “transpiles”) to JavaScript, and it’s proving to be a greater device for giant advanced functions.

One vital pattern reveals up on the backside of the graph. WebAssembly remains to be a small subject, but it surely noticed 74% progress from 2020 to 2021. And Blazor, Microsoft’s implementation of C# and .NET for WebAssembly, is up 59%. That’s a robust sign. These subjects are nonetheless small, but when they’ll preserve that sort of progress, they gained’t be small for lengthy. WebAssembly is poised to turn out to be an vital a part of internet improvement.

Yr-over-year progress for internet improvement subjects


The heaviest utilization within the design class went to person expertise and associated subjects. Person expertise grew 18%, person analysis grew 5%, interface design grew 92%, and interplay design grew 36%. For years, we anticipated software program to be troublesome and uncomfortable to make use of. That’s modified. Apple made person interface design a precedence early within the early 2000s, forcing different corporations to observe in the event that they needed to stay aggressive. The design considering motion could not be within the information, but it surely’s had an impact: software program groups take into consideration design from the start. Even software program builders who don’t have the phrase “design” of their job title want to consider and perceive design properly sufficient to construct respectable person interfaces and nice person experiences.

Usability, the one user-centric subject to indicate a decline, was solely down 2.6%. It’s additionally value noting that use of content material about accessibility has grown 96%. Accessibility remains to be a comparatively small class, however that sort of progress reveals that accessibility is a facet of person expertise that may not be ignored. (The usage of alt textual content for photos is just one instance: it’s turn out to be frequent on Twitter and is nearly common on Mastodon.)

Data structure was down considerably (a 17% drop). Does that imply that curiosity has shifted from designing data move to designing experiences, and is {that a} good factor?

Use of content material about digital and augmented actuality is comparatively small however grew 83%. The previous yr noticed plenty of pleasure round VR, Web3, the metaverse, and associated subjects. Towards the tip of the yr, that appeared to chill off. Nevertheless, an 83% enhance is noteworthy. Will that proceed? It could rely upon a brand new era of VR merchandise, each {hardware} and software program. If Apple could make VR glasses which are comfy and that folks can put on with out trying like aliens, 83% progress may appear small.

Yr-over-year progress for design subjects

The Future

We began out by saying that this trade doesn’t change as a lot from yr to yr as most individuals suppose. That’s true, however that doesn’t imply there’s no change. There are alerts of vital new traits—some fully new, some continuations of traits that began years in the past. So what small modifications are harbingers of larger modifications within the years to return?

The Go and Rust programming languages have proven important progress each up to now yr and for the previous couple of years. There’s no signal that this progress will cease. It would take just a few extra years, however earlier than lengthy they’ll be on a par with Java and Python.

It’s no shock that we noticed big positive aspects for pure language processing and deep studying. GPT-3 and its successor ChatGPT are the present stars of the present. Whereas there’s been plenty of discuss one other “AI winter,” that isn’t going to occur. The success of ChatGPT (to not point out Secure Diffusion, Midjourney, and plenty of tasks happening at Meta and Google) will hold winter away, a minimum of for one more yr. What’s going to individuals construct on prime of ChatGPT and its successors? What new programming instruments will we see? How will the which means of “laptop programming” change if AI assistants take over the duty of writing code? What new analysis instruments will turn out to be obtainable, and can our new AI assistants persist in “making stuff up”? For a number of years now, AI has been essentially the most thrilling space in software program. There’s heaps to think about, heaps to construct, and infinite house for innovation. So long as the AI neighborhood supplies thrilling new outcomes, nobody can be complaining and nobody want concern the chilly.

We’ve additionally seen a robust enhance in curiosity in management, administration, communication, and different “smooth abilities.” This curiosity isn’t new, but it surely’s definitely rising. Whether or not the present era of programmers is getting bored with coding or whether or not they understand smooth abilities as giving them higher job safety throughout a recession isn’t for us to say. It’s definitely true that higher communication abilities are an asset for any mission.

Our viewers is barely much less excited about content material concerning the “huge three” cloud suppliers (AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud), however they’re nonetheless tremendously excited about migrating to the cloud and making the most of cloud choices. Regardless of many stories claiming that cloud adoption is nearly common (and I confess to writing a few of them), I’ve lengthy believed that we’re solely within the early phases of cloud adoption. We’re now previous the preliminary stage, throughout which an organization may declare that it was “within the cloud” on the idea of some trial tasks. Cloud migration is severe enterprise. We anticipate to see a brand new wave of cloud adoption. Firms in that wave gained’t make naive assumptions concerning the prices of utilizing the cloud, they usually’ll have the instruments to optimize their cloud utilization. This new wave could not break till fears of a recession finish, however it would come.

Whereas the top-level safety class grew 20%, we’d hoped to see extra. For a very long time, safety was an afterthought, not a precedence. That’s altering, however slowly. Nevertheless, we noticed big positive aspects for zero belief and governance. It’s unlucky that these positive aspects are pushed by necessity (and the information cycle), however maybe the message is getting by means of in spite of everything.

What about augmented and digital actuality (AR/VR), the metaverse, and different fashionable subjects that dominated a lot of the commerce press? Curiosity in VR/AR content material grew considerably, although what which means for 2023 is anybody’s guess. Lengthy-term, the class most likely is determined by whether or not or not anybody could make AR glasses a vogue accent that everybody must have. An even bigger query is whether or not anybody can construct a next-generation internet that’s decentralized, and that fosters immediacy and collaboration with out requiring unique goggles. That’s clearly one thing that may be achieved: look no additional than Figma (for collaboration), Mastodon (for decentralization), or Petals (for a cloud-less cloud).

Will these be the large tales for 2023? February is just simply starting; we have now 11 months to search out out.




Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here